Minggu, 22 Januari 2012

5 BASIC TENSES

5 BASIC TENSES

1. Simple Present Tense

Fungsi:
a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang - ulang dan terus - menerus.
   Contoh :
Ø      I go to grandmother’s home on Sundays
Ø      We celebrate our independence day once in a year.

     b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth).
         Contoh:
Ø      The earth revolves round the sun.
Ø      The pineapple never grows up on a tree.


Kalimat Nominal

Rumus:

(+) Subject + is/am/are + C.
(-) Subject + is/am/are + not + C.
(?) is/am/are + Subject + C?

Kalimat Verbal

Rumus:

(+) Subject + V1 s/es + C.
(-) Subject + do/does + not + V1 + C.
(?) Do/does + Subject + V1 + C?

Contoh:

a. Kalimat Nominal

            1. It is a motorcycle.
(+) It is a motorcycle.
(- ) It is not a motorcycle.
(? ) Is it a motorcycle?

2. I am a student.
(+) I am a student.
(- ) I am not a student.
(? ) Am I a student?

3. You are at home every night.
(+) You are at home every night.
(- ) You are not at home every night.
(? ) Are you at home every night?

b. Kalimat Verbal

1. My Father reads a newspaper every morning.
(+) My father reads a newspaper every morning.
(- ) My father does not read a newspaper every morning.
(? ) Does my mather read a newspaper every morning?

2. He studies English twice a week.
(+) He studies English twice a week.
(- ) He does not study English twice a week.
(? ) Does he study English twice a week?

3. My mother cooks some vegetables everyday.
(+) My mother cooks some vegetables everyday.
(- ) My mother does not cook some vegetables everyday.
(? ) Does my mother cook some vegetables everyday?

2. Simple past Tense

Fungsi:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
Contoh:
Ø      I met my teacher yesterday.
Ø      My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.
Ø      Brodin closed the window five minutes ago.
Ø      The students presented their project work this morning.



Kalimat Nominal

Rumus:

(+) Subject + was/were + C.
(- ) Subject + was/were + not + C.
(?) Was/were + Subject + C?

Kalimat Verbal

Rumus:

(+) Subject + V2 + C.
(- ) Subject + did + not + V1 + C.
(?) Did + subject + V1 + C?

Contoh:

a. Kalimat Nominal

            1. I was in Surabaya last month.
(+) I was in Surabaya last month.
(- ) I was not in Surabaya last month.
(? ) Was I in Surabaya last month?

2. You were angry last time.
(+) You were angry last time.
(- ) You were not angry last time.
(? ) Were you angry last time?

3. She was sad yesterday.
(+) She was sad yesterday.
(- ) She was not sad yesterday.
(? ) Was she sad yesterday?

b. Kalimat Verbal

1. I wrote the letter for you yesterday.
(+) I wrote the letter for you yesterday.
(- )
I did not write the letter for you yesterday.
(? )
Did I write the letter for you yesterday?

2. He replied the massage a few minute ago.
(+) He replied the massage a few minute ago.
(- ) He did not reply the massage a few minute ago.
(? ) Did he reply the massage a few minute ago?

3. They came to my house last week.
(+) They came to my house last week.
(- ) They did not come to my house last week.
(? ) Did they come to my house last week?

3. Simple Future Tense

Fungsi:

  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.

Contoh:

Ø      Bobby will come here tomorrow.
Ø      I shall call my parents when I get home.

  1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yang bukan merupakan keinginan atau kehendak.

Contoh:

Ø      Tomy will be fourteen years old next year.
Ø      We shall die one day.

Kalimat Nominal

Rumus:

Will/Shall
(+) Subject + Will/Shall + Be + C.
(- ) Subject + Will/Shall + Not + Be + C.
(? ) Will/Shall + Subject + Be + C?

Be going to
(+) Subject + is/am/are + Going to + Be + C.
(- ) Subject + is/am/are + Not + Going to + Be + C.
(? ) is/am/are + Subject + Going to + Be + C?

Kalimat Verbal

Will/Shall
(+) Subject + Will/Shall + V1 + Object + C.
(- ) Subject + Will/Shall + Not + V1 + Object + C.
(? ) Will/Shall + Subject + V1 + Object + C?

Be going to
(+) Subject + is/am/are + Going to + V1 + Object + C.
(- ) Subject + is/am/are + Not + Going to + V1 + Object + C.
(? ) is/am/are + Subject + Going to + V1 + Object + C?

Contoh:

a. Kalimat Nominal

            1. I will be at the meeting tonight.
(+) I will be at the meeting tonight.
(- ) I will not  be at the meeting tonight.
(? ) Will I be at the meeting tonight?

2. They are going to be at the party tonight.
(+) They are going to be at the party tonight.
(- ) They are not going to be at the party tonight.
(? ) Are they going to be at the party tonight?

3. I will be in railway station tomorrow.
(+) I will be in railway station tomorrow.
(- ) I will not be in
railway station tomorrow.
(? ) Will I be in
railway station tomorrow?

b. Kalimat Verbal

1. Angga will finish his homework tomorrow.
(+) Angga will finish his homework tomorrow.
(- ) Angga will not finish his homework tomorrow.
(? ) Will Angga finish his homework tomorrow?

2. Mujib is going to visit his grandmother tomorrow.
(+) Mujib is going to visit his grandmother tomorrow.
(- ) Mujib is not going to visit his grandmother tomorrow.
(? ) Is Mujib going to visit his grandmother tomorrow?

3. He is going to play football this afternoon.
(+) He is going to play football this afternoon.
(- ) He is not going to play football this afternoon.
(? ) Is he going to play football this afternoon?

4. Present Continuous Tense

Fungsi:

  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu diucapkan.
Contoh:
Ø      They are still playing at the moment.
Ø      She is reading a novel now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan.
Contoh:
Ø      I am learning English this year.
Ø      Mr. Brown is teaching English.

Rumus:

(+) Subject + is/am/are + V1 ing + C.
(- ) Subject + is/am/are +  not + V1 ing + C.
(? ) is/am/are + Subject + V1 ing + C?

Contoh:

1. We are singing now.
(+) We are singing now.
(- )
We are not singing now.
(? )
Are we singing now?

2. She is blowing the candle.
(+) She is blowing the candle.
(- ) She is not blowing the candle.
(? ) Is she blowing the candle?

3. They are playing traditional games.
(+) They are playing traditional games.
(- ) They are not playing traditional games.
(? ) Are they playing traditional games?

5. Present Perfect Tense

a.             Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu.

Contoh :
Ø      William Shakespeare has written many short stories.
Ø      I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.

b.            Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang.

Contoh:

Ø      My friends and I have gone to Lamongan.
Ø      Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.

Kalimat Nominal

Rumus:

(+) Subject + has/have + been + C.
(- ) Subject + has/have + not + been + C.
(? ) Has/have + Subject + been + C?

Kalimat Verbal

Rumus:

(+) Subject + has/have + V3 + C.
(- ) Subject + has/have + not + V3 + C.
(? ) Has/have + Subject + V3 + C?

Contoh:

a. Kalimat Nominal

            1. I have been here for an hour.
(+) I have been here for an hour.
(- ) I have not been here for an hour.
(? ) Have I been here for an hour?

2. They have been to malang before.
(+) They have been to malang before.
(- ) They have not been to malang before.
(? ) Have they been to malang before?

3. She has been in Surabaya since to years ago.
(+) She has been in Surabaya since to years ago.
(- ) She has not been in Surabaya since to years ago.
(? ) Has she been in Surabaya since to years ago?

b. Kalimat Verbal

1. Mr. Ali has finished taught the students.
(+) Mr. Ali has finished taught the students.
(- )
Mr. Ali has not finished taught the students.
(? )
Has Mr. Ali finished taught the students?

2. Muklis and Reza have played badminton.
(+) Muklis and Reza have played badminton.
(- ) Muklis and Reza have not played badminton.
(? ) Have Muklis and Reza played badminton?

3. I have eaten this morning.
(+) I have eaten this morning.
(- ) I have not eaten this morning.
(? ) Have I eaten this morning?

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